3 types of Japanese verbs

there are 3 types of Japanese verbs.

① う-verbs (u-verbs)

② る-verbs (ru-verbs)

③ irregular verbs


① Changing う-verbs (u-verbs) to negative

★ The first type of Japanese verbs is called う-verbs (u-verbs).

★ To change an う-verb (u-verb) from affirmative to negative form:

★ change the final う sound (‘u’ sound) to an あ sound (‘a’ sound)

★ add ない (nai) to the end

 

Note:

In the case of a verb that ends in う (u), you have to be a little careful.
For verbs ending in う (u) (in other words, they end with two vowels), change う (u) to わ (wa).
For example, 洗う (あらう – arau) – to wash – changes to 洗わない (あらわない – arawanai) – to not wash.
An exception to the rules is the verb ある (aru) – to exist. The negative form is not あらない (aranai), just ない (nai).

 

話す/hanasu

話す(はなす – hanasu) is the plain present affirmative form of the verb meaning “to speak”

The negative form of 話す(はなす – hanasu) is 話さない(はなさない – hanasanai) – to not speak.

終わる/owaru

終わる(おわる – owaru) is the plain present affirmative form of the verb meaning “to end”

The negative form of 終わる(おわる – owaru) is 終わらない(おわらない – owaranai) – to not end.

飲む/nomu

飲む(のむ – nomu) is the plain present affirmative form of the verb meaning “to drink”

The negative form of 飲む(のむ – nomu) is 飲まない(のまない – nomanai) – to not drink.

遊ぶ/asobu

遊ぶ(あそぶ – asobu) is the plain present affirmative form of the verb meaning “to play”

The negative form of 遊ぶ(あそぶ – asobu) is 遊ばない(あそばない – asobanai) – to not play.

 

 

② Changing る-verbs (ru-verbs) to Negative

 

★ The second type of Japanese verbs is called る-verbs (ru-verbs).

★ To change a る-verb (ru-verb) from affirmative to negative:

★ Take off る (ru)

★ Add ない (nai)

 

 

忘れる/wasureru

忘れる(わすれる – wasureru) is the plain present affirmative form of the verb meaning “to forget”

The negative form of 忘れる(わすれる – wasureru) is 忘れない(わすれない – wasurenai) – to not forget.

覚える/oboeru

覚える(おぼえる – oboeru) is the plain present affirmative form of the verb meaning “to memorize,” “to learn,” or “to remember.”

The negative form of 覚える(おぼえる – oboeru) is 覚えない(おぼえない – oboenai).

負ける/makeru

負ける(まける – makeru) is the plain present affirmative form of the verb meaning “to lose”

The negative form of 負ける(まける – makeru) is 負けない(まけない – makenai)

辞める/yameru

辞める(やめる – yameru) is the plain present affirmative form of the verb meaning “to quit”

The negative form of 辞める(やめる – yameru) is 辞めない(やめない – yamenai)

 

③ Changing Irregular Verbs to Negative

★ There are only 2 irregular verbs in Japanese:

★ 来る(くる – kuru) which means ‘to come’

★ する (suru) which means ‘to do’

 

来ない/konai

来る (くる – kuru) changes to 来ない(こない – konai) – “to not come”

しない/shinai

する (suru) changes to しない (shinai) – “to not do”